What will my completed order look like?
Usually the completed paper will be sent to you as an MS Word document. It will contain the normal aspects of an academic paper, such as a title, section sub-headings, double or 1.5 line spacing, and full references both in the text and in a reference list or bibliography at the end of the paper (or footnotes, if you prefer this). If you have requested graphs, statistics tables and so on, these will be included in the paper. You can select the style of referencing which you prefer; please click on the Referencing tab to read more about this.View all questions
There are several different kinds of referencing systems, but the most commonly used are:
The most important thing to remember with all referencing is that you must be consistent. It is not acceptable to acknowledge some of your sources in footnotes (at the bottom of the page) or endnotes (at the end of the chapter), while others are acknowledged in brackets in the text, or vice versa. You should also check with your lecturer or faculty as to what system they would prefer. Most departments can give you guidelines, but you may have to ask for them. The following sections will give you an idea of each style. Please note that the text inside [square brackets] is not intended to be reproduced in your referencing, but shows comments and guidelines only.
In this system, in-text citations are used, with the author’s name and the page number. Here are some examples:
Your reference list should be titled 'Works Cited' and should look like this:
Bradford, Milton F. 'Hearing loss in the elderly.' Journal of Geriatrics 42 (1991): 38-45 [journal article]
Hobart, K.J. The History of the Moon. London: Piglet Press, 1968 [book]
More information about the MLA style is available online through an internet search.
APA referencing is commonly used in the social sciences. You give the author’s name and the year of publication. If you give a direct quote, you also give the page number, but not otherwise. Here are some examples:
Your reference list should be titled ‘References’ and should look like this:
Bradford, Milton F. (1991) Hearing loss in the elderly. Journal of Geriatrics 42(1), 38-45 [journal article]
Hobart, K.J. (1968) The History of the Moon. London: Piglet Press [book]
More information about the APA style is available online if you do an internet search.
These guidelines are based on the MHRA style guide, available at www.mhra.org.uk. The MHRA system differs from the above two in that it uses footnotes and endnotes rather than in-text citations. Use a superscript to mark each new footnote or endnote. Here are some examples:
1 Place the number at the end of the sentence, not straight after the name. Place the number after the punctuation.
2 Mark Browne, ‘Gender differences in emotional sensitivity’, Psychology Today, February 1989, p. 39 [Journal article]
3 K.L. Marcus, H.I. Feldman & P.R. Rupert. A Global Review (London, Piglet Press, 2001), p. 236.
4 Marcus et al., p. 69 [because you have already cited this work, there is no need to give the reference in full again]
Note that you will still need to give a full bibliography at the end of your paper, listing all works mentioned in all endnotes and footnotes. Please see the MHRA website for more information.
Harvard (Author-Date) System
The Harvard system is basically the same as APA. In-text citations are used, giving only the author and date (in brackets), unless a direct quote has been used, in which case give the page number as well. For more details on the Harvard system, please do an internet search.
The Chicago system is basically the same as the MHRA system, and uses superscripts (numerals raised above the text line) to acknowledge sources, with endnotes and footnotes. A full bibliography at the end of the paper may not be necessary, but if it does appear it should be called ‘Works Cited’. Ask your department or lecturer for guidelines if you are using the Chicago system, or research it online.
Other systems of referencing
The systems outlined above are the most widely used, but there are others. Undergraduates are not usually marked too strictly on their referencing, but post-graduates are. Be sure to ask your department or lecturer for guidelines, and if they differ from the systems shown here, please include the guidelines with your order requirements when you place your order.
Just as there are conventions for citing books and journal articles, there is a right way and a wrong way to cite online sources, whether it is a page in a website or a PDF of a scholarly article. One of the most common errors is that students do not write the date on which they retrieved or accessed the online source. Be sure to inform yourself of the conventions for the style of referencing which you will be using in your paper. You can do an internet research on any of the above systems, and then narrow your search down to ‘electronic sources’.
General tips on quoting and referencing
Correct referencing can make the difference between plagiarism, which is heavily penalized, and legitimate quotes. It is very important to attribute your main ideas to their correct sources, not only to avoid plagiarizing, but also to show that you have read and researched widely. Correct referencing means that you need to do the following:
Do not use quote marks in this case. Your own text will run to a normal line length, and the direct quote will be visually separate from that because it will use shorter lines. Indicate the author and so on as usual, either before or after the quote.
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